IV. SYLLABUS ERRORUM.

The Papal Syllabus of Errors. A.D. 1864.

 

[This document, though issued by the sole authority of Pope Pius IX., Dec. 8,1864, must be regarded now as infallible and irreformable, even without the formal sanction of the Vatican Council. It is purely negative, but indirectly it teaches and enjoins the very opposite of what it condemns as error. See Vol. I. ? 20, pp. 128-134.]

Syllabus complectens pr?ipuos nostr?tatis Errores qui notantur in Allocutionibus Consistorialibus, in Encyclicis, aliisque Apostolicis Letteris Sanctissimi Domini Nostri Pii Pap?X. The Syllabus of the principal errors of our time, which are stigmatized in the Consistorial Allocutions, Encyclicals, and other Apostolical Letters of our Most Holy Lord, Pope Pius IX.
? I.--PANTHEISMUS, NATURALI8MU8 ET RATIONALISMUS ABSOLUTUS. ? I.-- PANTHEISM, NATURALISM, AND ABSOLUTE RATIONALISM.
1. Nullum supremum, sapientissimum, providentissimumque Numen divinum exsistit ab hac rerum universitate distinctum, et Deus idem est ac rerum natura et iccirco immutationibus obnoxius, Deusque reapse fit in homine et mundo, atque omnia Deus sunt et ipsissimam Dei habent substantiam; ac una eademque res est Deus cum mundo, et proinde spiritus cum materia, necessitas cum libertate, verum cum falso, bonum cum malo, et justum cum injusto. 1. There exists no supreme, most wise, and most provident divine being distinct from the universe, and God is none other than nature, and is therefore subject to change. In effect, God is produced in man and in the world, and all things are God, and have the very substance of God. God is therefore one and the same thing with the world, and thence spirit is the same thing with matter, necessity with liberty, true with false, good with evil, justice with injustice.
Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862.
2. Neganda, est omnis Dei actio in homines et mundum. 2. All action of God upon man and the world is to be denied.
Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862.
3. Humana ratio, nullo prorsus 3. Human reason, without any

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Dei respectu habito, unicus est veri et falsi, boni et mali arbiter, sibi ipsi est lex et naturalibus suis viribus ad hominum ac populorum bonum curandum sufficit. regard to God, is the sole arbiter of truth and falsehood, of good and evil; it is its own law to itself, and suffices by its natural force to secure the welfare of men and of nations.
Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862.
4. Omnes religionis veritates ex nativa human?ationis vi derivant; hinc ratio est princeps norma, qua homo cognotionem: omnium cujuscumque generis veritatum assequi possit ac debeat. 4. All the truths of religion are derived from the native strength of human reason; whence reason is the master rule by which man can and ought to arrive at the knowledge of all truths of every kind.
Epist. encycl. Qui pluribus 9 novembris 1846. Encyclical Letters, Qui pluribus, 9th November, 1846.
Epist. encycl. Singulari quidem 17 martii 1856. Encyclical Letters, Singulari quidem, 17th March, 1856.
Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June,1862.
5. Divina revelatio est imperfecta et iccirco subjecta continuo et indefinito progressui, qui human?ationis progressioni respondeat. 5. Divine revelation is imperfect, and, therefore, subject to a continual and indefinite progress, which corresponds with the progress of human reason.
Epist. encycl. Qui pluribus 9 novembris 1846. Encyclical Letters, Qui pluribus, 9th November, 1846.
Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862.
6. Christi fides human?efragatur rationi; divinaque revelatio non solum nihil prodest, verum etiam nocet hominis perfectioni. 6. Christian faith contradicts human reason, and divine revelation not only does not benefit, but even injures the perfection of man.
Epist. encycl. Qui pluribus 9 novembris 1846. Encyclical Letters, Qui pluribus, 9th November, 1846.
Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem. 9th June,1862.
7. Propheti?t miracula in 7. The prophecies and miracles

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Sacris Litteris exposita et narrata sunt poetarum commenta, et Christian?idei mysteria philosophicarum investigationum summa; et utriusque Testamenti libris mythica continentur inventa; ipseque Jesus Christus est mythica fictio. set forth and narrated in the Sacred Scriptures are the fictions of poets; and the mysteries of the Christian faith are the result of philosophical investigations. In the books of both Testaments there are contained mythical inventions, and Jesus Christ is himself a mythical fiction.
Epist. encycl. Qui pluribus 9 novembris 1846. Encyclical Letters, Qui pluribus, 9th November, 1846.
Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862.
II.--RATIONALISMUS MODERATUS. ? II.--MODERATE RATIONALISM.
8. Quum ratio humana ipsi religioni ?uiparetur, iccirco theologic?isciplin?erinde ac philosophic?ractand?unt. 8. As human reason is placed on a level with religion, so theological matters must be treated in the same manner as philosophical ones.
Alloc. Singulari quadam perfusi 9 decembris 1844. Allocution Singulari quadam perfusi, 9th December, 1854.
9. Omnia indiscriminatim dogmata religionis Christian?unt objectum naturalis scienti?eu philosophi滠et humana ratio historice tantum exculta potest ex suis naturalibus viribus et principiis ad veram de omnibus etiam reconditioribus dogmatibus scientiam pervenire, modo h? dogmata ipsi rationi tamquam objectum proposita fuerint. 9. All the dogmas of the Christian religion are, without exception, the object of scientific knowledge or philosophy, and human reason, instructed solely by history, is able, by its own natural strength and principles, to arrive at the true knowledge of even the most abstruse dogmas: provided such dogmas be proposed as subject-matter for human reason.
Epist. ad Archiep. Frising. Gravissimas 11 decembris 1862. Letter ad Archiep. Frising. Gravissimas, llth December, 1862.
Epist. ad eumdem Tuas libenter 21 decembris 1863. To the same, Tuas libenter, 21st December, 1863.
10. Quum aliud sit philosophus, aliud philosophia, ille jus 10. As the philosopher is one thing, and philosophy is another, so

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et officium habet se submittendi auctoritaii, quam veram ipse probaverit; at philosophia neque potest, neque debet ulli sese submittere auctoritati. it is the right and duty of the philosopher to submit to the authority which he shall have recognized as true; but philosophy neither can nor ought to submit to any authority.
Epist. ad Archiep. Frising. Gravissimas 11 decembris 1862. Letter ad Archiep. Frising. Gravissimas, llth December, 1862.
Epist. ad eumdem Tuas libenter 21 decembris 1863. To the same, Tuas libenter, 21st December, 1863.
11. Ecclesia non solum non debet in philosophiam unquam animadvertere, verum etiam debet ipsius philosophi?olerare errores, eique relinquere ut ipsa se corrigat. 11. The Church not only ought never to animadvert upon philosophy, but ought to tolerate the errors of philosophy, leaving to philosophy the care of their correction.
Epist. ad Arcbiep. Frising. Gravissimas 11 decembris 1862. Letter ad Archiep. Frising. Gravissimas, llth December, 1862.
12. Apostolic?edis, Romanarumque Congregationum decreta liberum scienti?rogressum impediunt. 12. The decrees of the Apostolic See and of the Roman Congregations fetter the free progress of science.
Epist. ad Archiep. Frising. Tuas libenter 21 decembris 1863. Letter ad Archiep. Frising. Tuas libenter, 21st December, 1863.
13. Methodus et principia, quibus antiqui Doctores scholastici Theologiam excoluerunt, temporum nostrorum necessitatibus scientiarumque progressui minime congruunt. 13. The method and principles by which the old scholastic doctors cultivated theology are no longer suitable to the demands of the age and the progress of science.
Epist. ad Archiep. Frising. Tuas libenter 21 decembris 1863. Letter ad Archiep. Frising. Tuas libenter, 21st December, 1863.
14. Philosophia tractanda est, nulla supernaturalis revelationis habita ratione. 14. Philosophy must be treated of without any account being taken of supernatural revelation.
Epist. ad Archiep. Frising. Tuas libenter 21 decembris 1863. Epist. ad Archiep. Frising. Tuas libenter, 21st December, 1863.
N. B.--Cum rationalisms systemate coh?ent N. B.--To the rationalistic system belong,

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maximam partem errores Antonii Gr?ther, qui damnantur in Epist. ad Card. Archiep. Coloniensem Eximiam tuam 15 junii 1857, et in Epist. ad Episc. Wratislaviensem Dolore haud mediocri 30 aprilis 1860. in great part, the errors of Anthony G?ther, condemned in the letter to the Cardinal Archbishop of Cologne, Eximiam tuam, June 15, 1857, and in that to the Bishop of Breslau, Dolore haud mediocri, April 30, 1860.

? III.--INDIFFERENTISMUS, LATITUDINARISMUS.

? III.--INDIFFERENTISM, LATITUDINARIANISM.

15. Liberum cuique homini est eam amplecti ac profiteri religionem, quam rationis lumine quis ductus veram putaverit. 15. Every man is free to embrace and profess the religion he shall believe true, guided by the light of reason.
Litt. Apost. Multiplices inter 10 junii 1851. Apostolic Letter, Multiplices inter, 10th June, 1851.
Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June,1862.
16. Homines in cujusvis religionis cultu viam ?ern?alutis reperire ?ernamque salutem assequi possunt. 16. Men may in any religion find the way of eternal salvation, and obtain eternal salvation.
Epist. encycl. Qui pluribas 9 novembris 1846. Encyclical Letters, Qui pluribus, 9th November, 1846.
Alloc. Ubi primum 17 decembris 1847. Allocution Ubi primum, 17th December, 1847.
Epist. encycl. Singulari quidem 17 martii 1856. Encyclical Letters, Singulari quidem, 17th March, 1856.
17. Saltem bene sperandum est de ?erna, illorum omnium salute, qui in vera Christi Ecclesia nequaquam versantur. 17. We may entertain at least a well-founded hope for the eternal salvation of all those who are in no manner in the true Church of Christ.
Alloc. Singulari quadam 9 decembris 1854. Allocution Singulari quadam, 9th December, 1854.
Epist. encycl. Quanto conficiamur 17 augustii 1863. Encyclical Letters, Quanto conficiamur, 17th August, 1863.
18. Protestantismus non aliud est quam diversa ver?jusdem Christian?eligionis forma, in qua ?ue ac in Ecclesia Catholica 18. Protestantism is nothing more than another form of the same true Christian religion, in which it is possible to be equally

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Deo placere datum est. pleasing to God as in the Catholic Church.
Epist. encycl Noscitis et Nobiscum 8 decembris 1849. Encyclical Letters, Noscitis et Nobiscum, 8th December, 1849.

? IV.-- SOCIALISMUS, COMMUNISMUS, SOCIETATES CLANDESTINƬ SOCIETATES BIBLICƠSOCIETATES CLERICO-LIBERALES.

? IV.--SOCIALISM, COMMUNISM, SECRET SOCIETIES, BIBLICAL SOCIETIES, CLERICO-LIBERAL SOCIETIES.

Ejusmodi pestes s?e gravissimisque verborum formulis reprobantur in Epist. encycl. Qui pluribus 9 novembr. 1846; in Alloc. Quibus quantisque 20 april. 1849; in Epist. encycl. Noscitis et Nobiscum 8 dec. 1849; in Alloc. Singulari quadam 9 dec. 1854; in Epist. encycl. Quanto conficiamur m?ore 10 augusti 1863. Pests of this description are frequently rebuked in the severest terms in the Encyc. Qui pluribus, Nov. 9, 1846; Alloc. Quibus quantisque, April 20, 1849; Encyc. Noscitis et Nobiscum, Dec. 8, 1849; Alloc. Singulari quadam, Dec. 9, 1854; Encyc. Quanto conficiamur m?ore, Aug. 10, 1863.

? V.-- ERRORES DE ECCLESIA EJUSQUE JURIBUS.

? V.-- ERRORS CONCERNING THE CHURCH AND HER RIGHTS.

19. Ecclesia non est vera perfectaque societas plane libera, nec pollet suis propriis et constantibus juribus sibi a divino suo fundatore collatis, sed civilis potestatis est definire qu?int Ecclesi?ura ac limites, intra quos eadem jura exercere queat. 19. The Church is not a true, and perfect, and entirely free society, nor does she enjoy peculiar and perpetual rights conferred upon her by her Divine Founder, but it appertains to the civil power to define what are the rights and limits with which the Church may exercise authority.
Alloc. Singulari quadam 9 decembris 1854. Allocution Singulari quadam, 9th December, 1854.
Alloc. Multis gravibusque 17 decembris 1860. Allocution Multis gravibusque, 17th December, 1860.
Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862.
20. Ecclesiastica potestas suam 20. The ecclesiastical power must

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auctoritatem exercere non debet absque civilis gubernii venia et assensu. not exercise its authority without the permission and assent of the civil government.
Alloc. Meminit unusquisque 30 septembris 1861. Allocution Meminit unusquisque, 30th September, 1861.
21. Ecclesia non habet potestatem dogmatice definiendi, religionem Catholic?celesi?sse unice veram religionem. 21. The Church has not the power of defining dogmatically that the religion of the Catholic Church is the only true religion.
Litt. Apost. Multiplices inter 10 junii 1851. Apostolic Letter, Multiplices inter, 10th June, 1851.
22. Obligatio, qua Catholici magistri et scriptores omnino adstringuntur, coarctatur in iis tantum, qu?b infallibili Ecclesi?udicio veluti fidei dogmata ab omnibus credenda proponuntur. 22. The obligation which binds Catholic teachers and authors applies only to those things which are proposed for universal belief as dogmas of the faith, by the infallible judgment of the Church.
Epist. ad Archiep. Frising. Tuas libenter 21 decembris 1863. Letter ad Archiep. Frising. Tuas libenter, 21st December, 1863.
23. Romani Pontifices et Concilia ?cumenica a limitibus su?otestatis recesserunt, jura principum usurparunt, atque etiam in rebus fidei et morum definiendis errarunt. 23. The Roman Pontiffs and ?cumenical Councils have exceeded the limits of their power, have usurped the rights of princes, and have even committed errors in defining matters of faith and morals.
Litt. Apost. Multiplices inter 10 junii 1851. Apostolic Letter, Multiplices inter, 10th June, 1851.
24. Ecclesia vis inferend?otestatem non habet, neque potestatem ullam temporalem directam vel indirectam. 24. The Church has not the power of availing herself of force, or any direct or indirect temporal power.
Litt. Apost. Ad apostolic格/I>22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolic漯I>, 22d August, 1851.
25. Pr?er potestatem Episcopatui inh?entem, alia est attributa temporalis potestas a civili 25. In addition to the authority inherent in the Episcopate, a further and temporal power is granted

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imperio vel expresse vel tacite concessa, revocanda propterea, cum libuerit, a civili imperio. to it by the civil authority, either expressly or tacitly, which power is on that account also revocable by the civil authority whenever it pleases.
Litt. Apost. Ad apostolic格/I>22 angusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolic漯I>, 22d August, 1851.
26. Ecclesia non habet nativum ac legitimum jus acquirendi ac possidendi. 26. The Church has not the innate and legitimate right of acquisition and possession.
Alloc. Nunquam fore 15 decembris 1856. Allocution Nunquam fore, 15th Dec., 1856.
Epist. encycl. Incredibili 17 septembris 1863. Encyclical Letters, Incredibili, 17th. September, 1863.
27. Sacri Ecclesi捊 ministri Romanusque Pontifex ab omni rerum temporalium cura ac dominio sunt omnino excludendi. 27. The ministers of the Church, and the Roman Pontiff, ought to be absolutely excluded from all charge and dominion over temporal affairs.
Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862.
28. Episcopis, sine gubernii venia, fas non est vel ipsas apostolicas litteras promulgare. 28. Bishops have not the right of promulgating even their apostolical letters, without the permission of the government.
Alloc. Nunquam fore 15 decembris 1856. Allocution Nunquam fore, 15th Dec., 1856.
29. Grati? Romano Pontifice concess?xistimari debent tamquam irrit欠nisi per gubernium fuerint implorat殼/I> 29. Dispensations granted by the Roman Pontiff must be considered null, unless they have been asked for by the civil government.
Alloc. Nunquam fore 15 decembris 1856. Allocution Nunquam fore, 15th Dec., 1856.
30. Ecclesi?t personarum ecclesiasticarum immunitas a jure civili ortum habuit. 30. The immunity of the Church and of ecclesiastical persons derives its origin from civil law.
Litt. Apost. Multiplices inter 10 junii 1851. Apostolic Letter, Multiplices inter, 10th June, 1851.
31. Ecclesiasticum forum pro temporalibus clericorum causis sive civilibus sive criminalibus omnino de medio tollendum est, 31. Ecclesiastical courts for temporal causes, of the clergy, whether civil or criminal, ought by all means to be abolished, either without the

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etiam inconsulta et reclamante Apostolica Sede. concurrence and against the protest of the Holy See.
Alloc. Acerbissimum 27 septembris 1852. Allocution Acerbissimum, 27th September, 1852.
Alloc. Nunquam fore 15 decembris 1856. Allocation Nunquam fore, 15th December, 1856.
32. Absque ulla naturalis juris et ?uitatis violatione potest abrogari personalis immunitas, qua clerici ab onere subeund?xercend?ue militi?ximuntur; hanc vero abrogationem postulat civilis progressus maxime in societate ad formam liberioris regiminis constituta. 32. The personal immunity exonerating the clergy from military service may be abolished, without violation either of natural right or of equity. Its abolition is called for by civil progress, especially in a community constituted upon principles of liberal government.
Epist. ad Epistc. Montisregal. Singularis Nobisque 29 septembris 1864. Letter to the Archbishop of Montreal, Singularis nobisque, 29th September, 1864.
33. Non pertinet unice ad ecclesiasticam jurisdictions potestatem proprio ac nativo jure dirigere theologicarum rerum doctrinam. 33. It does not appertain exclusively to ecclesiastical jurisdiction, by any right, proper and inherent, to direct the teaching of theological subjects.
Epist. ad Archiep. Frising. Tuas libenter 21 decembris 1863. Letter ad Archiep. Frising. Tuas libenter, 21st December, 1863.
34. Doctrina, comparantium Romanum Pontificem principi libero et agenti in universa Ecclesia doctrina est qu?edia ?o pr?aluit. 34. The teaching of those who compare the sovereign Pontiff to a free sovereign acting in the universal Church is a doctrine which prevailed in the middle ages.
Litt. Apost. Ad apostolic格/I>22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolicm, 22d August, 1851.
35. Nihil vetat, alicujus concilii generalis sententia aut universorum populorum facto, summum Pontificatum ab Romano Episoopo atque Urbe ad alium 35. There would be no obstacle to the sentence of a general council, or the act of all the universal peoples, transferring the pontifical sovereignty from the Bishop and

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Episcopum aliamque civitatem transferri. City of Rome to some other bishopric and some other city.
Litt. Apost. Ad apostolic格/I>22 angusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolic漯I>, 22d August, 1851.
36. Nationalis consilii definitio nullam aliam admittit disputationem, civilisque administratio rem ad hosce terminos exigere potest. 36. The definition of a national council does not admit of any subsequent discussion, and the civil power can regard as settled an affair decided by such national council.
Litt. Apost. Ad apostolic格/I>22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolic漯I>, 22d August, 1851.
37. Institui possunt nationales Ecclesias db auctoritate Romani Pontificis subduct?laneque divis殼/I> 37. National churches can be established, after being withdrawn and plainly separated from the authority of the Roman Pontiff.
Alloc. Multis gravibusgue 17 decembris 1860. Allocution Multis gravibusque, 17th December, 1860.
Alloc. Jamdudum cernimus 18 martii 1861. Allocution Jamdudum cernimus, 18th March, 1861.
38. Divisioni Ecclesi?n orientalem atque occidentalem nimia Romanorum Pontificum arbitria contulerunt. 38. Roman Pontiffs have, by their too arbitrary conduct, contributed to the division of the Church into eastern and western.
Litt. Apost. Ad apostolic格/I>22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolic漯I>, 22d August, 1851.

? VI.-- ERRORES DE SOCIETATE CIVILI TUM IN SE, TUM IN SUI8 AD ECCLESIAM RELATIONIBUS SPECTATA.

? VI.-- ERRORS ABOUT CIVIL SOCIETY, CONSIDEEED BOTH IN ITSELF AND IN ITS RELATION TO THE CHURCH.

39. Reipublic?tatus, utpote omnium jurium origo et fons, jure quodam pollet nullis circumscripto limitibus. 39. The commonwealth is the origin and source of all rights, and possesses rights which are not circumscribed by any limits.
Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862.
40. Catholic捊 Ecclesia doctrina 40. The teaching of the Catholic

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human?ocietatis bono et commodis adversatur. Church is opposed to the well-being and interests of society.
Epist. encycl. Qui pluribus 9 novembris 1846. Encyclical Letters, Qui pluribus, 9th November, 1846.
Alloc. 1849. Quibus quantisque 20 aprilis 1849. Allocution Quibus quantisque, 20th April, 1849.
41. Civili potestati vel ab infideli imperante exercit?ompetit potestas indirecta negativa in sacra; eidem proinde competit nedum jus quod vocant exequatur, sed etiam jus appellationis, quam nuncupant, ab abusu. 41. The civil power, even when exercised by an unbelieving sovereign, possesses an indirect and negative power over religious affairs. It therefore possesses not only the right called that of exequatur, but that of the (so-called) appellatio ab abusu.
Litt. Apost. Ad apostolic漯I> 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolic漯I>, 22d August. 1851.
42. In conflictu legum utriusque potestatis jus civile pr?alet. 42. In the case of conflicting laws between the two powers, the civil law ought to prevail.
Litt. Apost. Ad apostolic格/I>22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolic漯I>, 22d August, 1851.
43. Laica potestas auctoritatem habet rescindendi, declarandi ac faciendi irritas solemnes conventiones (vulgo Concordata) super usu jurium ad ecclesiasticam immunitatem pertinentium cum Sede Apostolica initas, sine hujus consensu, immo et ea reclamante. 43. The civil power has a right to break, and to declare and render null, the conventions (commonly called Concordats) concluded with the Apostolic See, relative to the use of rights appertaining to the ecclesiastical immunity, without the consent of the Holy See, and even contrary to its protest.
Alloc. In Consistoriali 1 novembris 1850. Allocution In Consistoriali, 1st Nov., 1850.
Alloc. Multis gravibusque 17 decembris 1860. Allocution Multis gravibusque, 17th December, 1860.
44. Civilis auctoritas potest se immiscere rebus qu?d religionem, mores et regimen spirituale 44. The civil authority may interfere in matters relating to religion, morality, and spiritual government.

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pertinent. Hinc potest de instructionibus judicare, quas Ecclesi?astores ad conscientiarum normam pro suo munere edunt, quin etiam potest de divinorum sacramentorum administratione et dispositionibus ad ea suscipienda necessariis decernere. Hence it has control over the instructions for the guidance of consciences issued, conformably with their mission, by the pastors of the Church. Further, it possesses power to decree, in the matter of administering the divine sacraments, as to the dispositions necessary for their reception.
Alloc. In Consistoriali 1 novembris 1850. Allocution In Consistoriali, 1st Nov., 1850.
Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862.
45. Totum scholarum publicarum regimen, in quibus juventus Christian?licujus reipublic捊 instituitur, episcopalibus dumtaxat seminariis aliqua ratione exceptis, potest ac debet attribui auctoritati civili, et ita quidem attribui, ut nullam alii cuicumque auctoritati recognoscatur jus immiscendi se in disciplina scholarum, in regimine studiorum, in graduum collatione, in dilectu aut approbatione magistrorum. 45. The entire direction of public schools, in which the yonth of Christian states are educated, except (to a certain extent) in the case of episcopal seminaries, may and must appertain to the civil power, and belong to it so far that no other authority whatsoever shall be recognized as having any right to interfere in the discipline of the schools, the arrangement of the studies, the taking of degrees, or the choice and approval of the teachers.
Alloc. In Consistoriali 1 novembris 1850. Allocution In Consistoriali, 1st Nov., 1850.
Alloc. Quibus luctuosissimis 5 septembris 1851. Allocution Quibus luctuosissimis, 5th September, 1851.
46. Immo in ipsis clericorum seminariis methodus studiorum adhibenda civili auctoritati subjicitur. 46. Much more, even in clerical seminaries, the method of study to be adopted is subject to the civil authority.
Alloc. Nunquam fore 15 decembris 1856. Allocution Nimquam fort, 15 Dec., 1856.
47. Postulat optima civilis societatis ratio, ut populares schol欠qu?atent omnibus cujusque e populo classis pueris, ac publica 47. The best theory of civil society requires that popular schools open to the children of all classes, and, generally, all public institutes

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universim instituta, qu?itteris severioribusque disciplinis tradendis et educationi juventutis curand?unt destinata, eximantur ab omni Ecclesi?uctoritate, moderatrice vi et ingerentia, plenoque civilis ac politic?uctoritatis arbitrio subjiciantur ad imperantium placita et ad communium ?atis opinionum amussim. intended for instruction in letters and philosophy, and for conducting the education of the young, should be freed from all ecclesiastical authority, government, and interference, and should be fully subject to the civil and political power, in conformity with the will of rulers and the prevalent opinions of the age.
Epist. ad Archiep. Friburg. Quum nan sine 14 julii 1864. Letter to the Archbishop of Fribourg, Quum nan sine, 14th July, 1864.
48. Catholicis viris probari potest ea juventutis instituend?atio, qu?it a Catholica fide et ab Ecclesi?otestate sejuncta, qu?ue rerum dumtaxat naturalium scientiam ac terren?ocialis vit?ines tantummodo vel saltem primario spectet. 48. This system of instructing youth, which consists in separating it from the Catholic faith and from the power of the Church, and in teaching exclusively, or at least primarily, the knowledge of natural things and the earthly ends of social life alone, may be approved by Catholics.
Epist. ad Archiep. Friburg. Quum non sine 14 julii 1864. Letter to the Archbishop of Fribourg, Quum non sine, 14th July, 1864.
49. Civilis auctoritas potest impedire quominus sacrorum antistites et fideles populi cum Romano Pontifice libere ac mutuo communicent. 49. The civil power has the right to prevent ministers of religion, and the faithful, from communicating freely and mutually with each other, and with the Roman Pontiff.
Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862.
50. Laica auctoritas habet per se jus pr?entandi episcopos et potest ab illis exigere, ut ineant dioecesium procurationem, antequam ipsi canonicam at S. Sede institutionem 50. The secular authority possesses, as inherent in itself, the right of presenting bishops, and may require of them that they take possession of their dioceses before having received canonical institution

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et apostolicas litteras accipiant. and the apostolic letters from the Holy See.
Alloc. Nunquam fore 15 decembris 1856. Allocution Nunquam fore, 15th Dec., 1856.
51. Immo laioum gubernium habet jus deponendi ab exercitio pastoralis ministerii episcopos, neque tenetur obedire Romano Pontifici in iis qu?piscopatuum et episcoporum respiciunt institutionem. 51. And, further, the secular government has the right of deposing bishops from their pastoral functions, and it is not bound to obey the Roman Pontiff in those things which relate to episcopal sees and the institution of bishops.
Litt. Apost. Multiplices inter 10 junii 1851. Apostolic Letter, Multiplices inter, 10th June, 1851.
Alloc. Acerbissimum 27 septembris 1852. Allocution Acerbissimum, 27th Sept., 1852.
52. Gubernium potest suo jure immutare ?atem ab Ecclesia pr?criptam pro religiosa tam mulierum quam virorum professione, omnibusque religiosis familiis indicere, ut neminem sine suo permissu ad solemnia vota nuncupanda admittant. 52. The government has of itself the right to alter the age prescribed by the Church for the religious profession, both of men and women; and it may enjoin upon all religious establishments to admit no person to take solemn vows without its permission.
Alloc. Nunquam fore 15 decembris 1856. Allocution Nunquam fore, 15th Dec., 1856.
53. Abrogand?unt leges qu?d religiosarum familiarum statum tutandum, earumque jura et officia pertinent; immo potest civile gubernium iis omnibus auxilium pr?tare, qui a suscepto religios?it?nstituto deficere ac solemnia vota frangere velint; pariterque potest religiosas easdem familias perinde ac collegiatas Ecclesias, et beneficia simplicia etiam juris patronatus penitus extinguere, illorumque bona et reditus 53. The laws for the protection of religious establishments, and securing their rights and duties, ought to be abolished: nay, more, the civil government may lend its assistance to all who desire to quit the religious life they have undertaken, and break their vows. The government may also suppress religious orders, collegiate churches, and simple benefices, even those belonging to private patronage, and submit their goods and revenues to the administration

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civilis potestatis administrationi et arbitrio subjicere et vindicare. and disposal of the civil power.
Alloc. Acerbissimum 27 septembris 1852. Allocution Acerbissimum, 27th Sept., 1852.
Alloc. Probe memineritis 22 januarii 1855. Allocution Probe memineritis, 22d Jan., 1855.
Alloc. Cum s?ie 26 julii 1855. Allocution Cum s?e, 26th July, 1855.
54. Reges et principes non solum ab Ecclesi?urisdictione eximuntur, verum etiam in qu?tionibus jurisdiotionis dirimendis superiores sunt Ecclesia. 54. Kings and princes are not only exempt from the jurisdiction of the Church, but are superior to the Church, in litigated questions of jurisdiction.
Litt. Apost. Multiplices inter 10 junii 1851. Apostolic Letter, Multiplices inter, 10th June, 1851.
55. Ecclesia a Statu, Statusque ab Ecclesia sejungendus est. 55. The Church ought to be separated from the State, and the State from the Church.
Alloc. Acerbissimum 27 septembris 1852. Allocution Acerbissimum, 27th Sept., 1852.

? VIII.--ERRORES DE ETHICA NATURALI ET CHRISTIANA.

? VIII.-- ERRORS CONCERNING NATURAL AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS.

56. Morum leges divina haud egent sanctione, minimeque opus est ut human?eges ad natur?us confirmentur aut obligandi vim a Deo accipiant. 56. Moral laws do not stand in need of the divine sanction, and there is no necessity that human laws should be conformable to the law of nature, and receive their sanction from God.
Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862.
57. Philosophicarum rerum morumque scientia, itemque civiles leges possunt et debent a divina et ecclesiastica auctoritate declinare. 57. Knowledge of philosophical things and morals, and also civil laws, may and must depart from divine and ecclesiastical authority.
Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862.
58. Ali?ires non sunt agnoscend?isi ill?u?n materia posit?unt, et omnis morum disciplina honestasque collocari 58. No other forces are to be recognized than those which reside in matter; and all moral teaching and moral excellence ought to be

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debet in cumulandis et augendis quovis modo divitiis ac in voluptatibus explendis. made to consist in the accumuliation and increase of riches by every possible means, and in the enjoyment of pleasure.
Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862.
Epist. encycl. Quanta conficiamur 10 augusti 1863. Encyclical Letters, Quanto conficiamur, 10th August, 1863.
59. Jus in materiali facto consistit, et omnia hominum officia sunt nomen inane, et omnia humana facta juris vim habent. 59. Right consists in the material fact, and all human duties are but vain words, and all human acts have the force of right.
Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862.
60. Auctoritas nihil aliud est nisi numeri et materialium virium summa. 60. Authority is nothing else but the result of numerical superiority and material force.
Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862.
61. Fortunata facti injustitia nullum juris sanctitati detrimentum affert. 61. An unjust act, being successful, inflicts no injury upon the sanctity of right.
Alloc. Jamdudum cernimus 18 martii 1861. Allocution Jamdudum cernimus, 18th March, 1861.
62. Proclamandum est et observandum principium quod vocant de non-interventn. 62. The principle of non-intervention, as it is called, ought to be proclaimed and adhered to.
Alloc. Novos et ante 28 septembris 1860. Allocution Novos et ante, 28th Sept., 1860.
63. Legitimis principibus obedientiam detrectare, immo et rebellare licet. 63. It is allowable to refuse obedience to legitimate princes: nay, more, to rise in insurrection against them.
Epist. encycl. Qui pluribus 9 novembris 1846. Encyclical Letters, Qui pluribus, 9th November, 1846.
Alloc. Quisque vestram 4 octobris 1847. Allocution Quisque vestrum, 4th Oct., 1847.
Epist. encycl. Noscitis et Nobiscum 8 decembris 1849. Encyclical Letters, Noscitis et Nobiscum, 8th December, 1849.
Litt. Apost. Cum catholica 26 martii 1860. Apostolic Letter, Cum catholica, 26th March, 1860.
64. Tum cujusque sanctissimi 64. The violation of a solemn

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juramenti violatio, tum qu?ibet scelesta flagitiosaque actio sempitern?egi repugnans, non solum haud est improbanda, verum etiam omnino licita, summisque laudibus efferenda, quando id pro patri?more agatur. oath, even every wicked and flagitious action repugnant to the eternal law, is not only not blamable, but quite lawful, and worthy of the highest praise, when done for the love of country.
Alloc. Quibus quantisque 20 aprilis 1849. Allocation Quibus quantisque, 20th April, 1849.

? VIII.--ERRORES DE MATRIMONIO CHRISTIANO.

? VIII.-- THE ERRORS CONCERNING CHRISTIAN MARRIAGE.

65. Nulla ratione ferri potest, Christum evexisse matrimonium ad dignitatem sacramenti. 65. It can not be by any means tolerated, to maintain that Christ has raised marriage to the dignity of a sacrament.
Litt. Apost. Ad apostolic漯I> 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolic漯I>, 22d August, 1851.
66. Matrimonii sacramentum non est nisi quid contractui accessorium ab eoque separabile, ipsumque sacramentum in una tantum nuptiali benedictione situm est. 66. The sacrament of marriage is only an adjunct of the contract, and separable from it, and the sacrament itself consists in the nuptial benediction alone.
Litt. Apost. Ad apostolic格/I>22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolic漯I>, 22d August, 1851.
67. Jure natur捊 matrimonii vinculum non est indissolubile et in variis casibus divortium proprie dictum auctoritate civili sanciri potest. 67. By the law of nature, the marriage tie is not indissoluble, and in many cases divorce, properly so called, may be pronounced by the civil authority.
Litt. Apost. Ad apostolic格/I>22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolic漯I>, 22d August, 1851.
Alloc. Acerbissimum 27 septembris 1852. Allocution Acerbissimum, 27th Sept. 1852.
68. Ecclesia non habet potestatem impedimenta matrimonium dirimentia inducendi, sed ea potestas civili auctoritati competit, 68. The Church has not the power of laying down what are diriment impediments to marriage. The civil authority does possess such a

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a qua impedimenta existentia tollenda sunt. power, and can do away with existing impediments to marriage.
Litt. Apost. Multiplices inter 10 junii 1851. Apostolic Letter, Multiplices inter, 10th June, 1851.
69. Ecclesia sequioribus s?utis dirimentia impedimenta inducere c?it, non jure proprio, sed illo jure usa, quod a civili potestate mutuata erat. 69. The Church only commenced in later ages to bring in diriment impediments, and then availing herself of a right not her own, but borrowed from the civil power.
Litt. Apost. Ad apostolic格/I>22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolical, 22d August, 1851.
70. Tridentini canones, qui anathematis censuram illis inferunt, qui facultatem impedimenta dirimentia inducendi Ecclesi?egare audeant, vel non sunt dogmatici vel de hac mutuata potestate intelligendi sunt. 70. The canons of the Council of Trent, which pronounce censure of anathema against those who deny to the Church the right of laying down what are diriment impediments, either are not dogmatic, or must be understood as referring only to such borrowed power.
Litt. Apost. Ad apostolic栲2 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolic漯I>, 22d August, 1851.
71. Tridentini forma sub infirmitatis p?a non obligat, ubi lex civilis aliam formam pr?tituat, et velit hac nova forma interveniente matrimonium valere. 71. The form of solemnizing marriage prescribed by the said Council, under penalty of nullity, does not bind in cases where the civil law has appointed another form, and where it decrees that this new form shall effectuate a valid marriage.
Litt. Apost. Ad apostolic漯I> 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolic漯I>, 22d August, 1851.
72. Bonifacius VIII. votum castitatis in ordinatione emissum nuptias nullas reddere primus asseruit. 72. Boniface VIII. is the first who declared that the vow of chastity pronounced at ordination annuls nuptials.
Litt. Apost. Ad apostolic漯I> 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolic漯I> 22d August, 1851.

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73. Vi contractus mere civilis potest inter Christianos constare veri nominis matrimonium; falsumque est, aut contractum matrimonii inter Christianos semper esse sacramentum, aut nullum esse contractum, si sacramentum excludatur. 73. A merely civil contract may, among Christians, constitute a true marriage; and it is false, either that the marriage contract between Christians is always a sacrament, or that the contract is null if the sacrament be excluded.
Litt. Apost. Ad apostolic格/I>22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolic漯I>, 22d August, 1851.
Lettera di S. S. PIO IX. al Re di Sardegna 9 settembre 1852. Letter to the King of Sardinia, 9th September, 1852.
Alloc. Acerbissimum 27 septembris 1852. Allocution Acerbissimum, 27th Sept., 1852.
Alloc. Multis gravibusque 17 decembris 1860. Allocution Multis gravibusque, 17th December, 1860.
74. Causs捊 matrimoniales et sponsalia suapte natura ad forum civile pertinent. 74. Matrimonial causes and espousals belong by their very nature to civil jurisdiction.
Litt. Apost. Ad apostolic格/I>22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolic漯I>, 22d August, 1851.
Alloc. Acerbissimum 27 septembris 1852. Allocution Acerbissimum, 27th Sept., 1852.
N. B.--Huc facere possunt duo alii errores de clericorum c?ibatu abolendo et de statu matrimonii statui virginitatis anteferendo. (Confodiuntur, prior in epist. encycl. Qui pluribus 9 novembris 1846, posterior in litteris apost. Multiplices inter 10 junii 1851.) N. B.--Two other errors may tend in this direction, those upon the abolition of the celibacy of priests, and the preference due to the state of marriage over that of virginity. These have been proscribed; the first in the Encyclical Qui pluribus, Nov. 9, 1846; the second in the Apostolic Letter Multiplices inter, June 10th, 1851.

? IX.--ERRORES DE CIVILI ROMANI PONTIFICIS PRINCIPATU.

? IX.--ERRORS REGARDING THE CIVIL POWER OF THE SOVEREIGN PONTIFF.

75. De temporalis regni cum spirituali compatibilitate disputant inter se Christian?t Catholic?cclesi?ilii. 75. The children of the Christian and Catholic Church are not agreed upon the compatibility of the temporal with the spiritual power.
Litt. Apost. Ad apostolic漯I> 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolic漯I>, 22d August, 1851.

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76. Abrogatio civilis imperii, quo Apostolica Sedes potitur, ad Ecclesi?ibertatem felidtatemque vel maxime conduceret. 76. The abolition of the temporal power, of which the Apostolic See is possessed, would contribute in the greatest degree to the liberty and prosperity of the Church.
Alloc. Quibus quantisque 20 aprilis 1849. Allocution Quibus quantisque, 20th April, 1849.
N. B.--Pr?er hos errores explicite notatos, alii complures implicite reprobantur, proposita et asserta doctrina, quam Catholici omnes firmissime retinere debeant, de civili Romani Pontificis principatu. (Ejusmodi doctrina luculenter traditur in Alloc. Quibus quantisque 20 aprilis 1849; in Alloc. Si semper antea 20 maii 1850; in Litt. apost. Quum Catholica Ecclesia 26 martii 1860; in Alloc. Novos 28 sept. 1860; in Alloc. Jamdudum 18 martii 1861; in Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. N. B.--Besides these errors, explicitly noted, many others are impliedlv rebuked by the proposed and asserted doctrine, which all Catholics are bound most firmly to hold, touching the temporal sovereignty of the Roman Pontiff. These doctrines are clearly stated in the Allocutions Quibus quantisque, 20th April, 1849, and Si semper antea, 20th May, 1850; Apost. Letter Quum Catholica Ecclesia, 26th March, 1860; Allocutions Novos, 28th Sept., 1860; Jamdudum, 18th March, 1861; and Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862.

? X.--ERRORES QUI AD LIBERALISMUM HODIERNUM REFERUNTUR.

? IX.--ERRORS HAVING REFERENCE TO MODERN LIBERALISM.

77. ?ate hoc nostra non amplius expedit, religionem Catholicam haberi tamquam unicam Status religionem, ceteris quibuscumque cultibus exclusis. 78. In the present day, it is no longer expedient that the Catholic religion shall be held as the only religion of the State, to the exclusion of all other modes of worship.
Alloc. Nemo vestrum 26 julii 1855. Allocution Nemo vestrum, 26th July, 1855.
78. Hinc laudabiliter in quibusdam Catholici nominis regionibus lege cautum est, ut hominibus illuc immigrantibus liceat publicum proprii cujusque cultus exercitium habere. 78. Whence it has been wisely provided by law, in some countries called Catholic, that persons coming to reside therein shall enjoy the public exercise of their own worship.
Alloc. Acerbissimum 27 septembris 1852. Allocution Acerbissimum, 27th Sept., 1852.
79. Enimvero falsum est, civilem, cujusque cultus libertatem, 79. Moreover, it is false that the civil liberty of every mode of worship,

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itemque plenam potestatem omnibus attributam quaslibet opiniones cogitationesque palam publiceque manifestandi conducere ad populorum mores animosque facilius corrumpendos ac indifferentismi pestem propogandam. and the full power given to all of overtly and publicly manifesting their opinions and their ideas, of all kinds whatsoever, conduce more easily to corrupt the morals and minds of the people, and to the propagation of the pest of indifferentism.
Alloc. Nunquam fore 15 decembris 1856. Allocation Nunquam fore, 15th Dec., 1856.
80. Romanus Pontifex potest ac debet cum progressu, cum liberalismo et cum recenti civilitate sese reconciliare et componere. 80. The Roman Pontiff can and ought to reconcile himself to, and agree with, progress, liberalism, and civilization as lately introduced.
Alloc. Jamdudum cernimus 18 martii 1861. Allocution Jamdudum cernimus, 18th March, 1861.