A: There are two kinds of sin: original sin and actual sin.
A: Original sin is the sin in which we are all born, and which we contracted by the disobedience of our first parent, Adam.
A: The evil effects of the sin of Adam are: The privation of grace, the loss of Paradise, together with ignorance, inclination to evil, death, and all our other miseries.
A: Original sin is canceled by holy Baptism.
A: Actual sin is that which man, after coming to the use of reason, commits of his own free will.
A: There are two kinds of actual sin: mortal and venial.
A: Mortal sin is a transgression of the divine Law by which we seriously fail in our duties towards God, towards our neighbor, or towards ourselves.
A: It is called mortal because it brings death on the soul by making it lose sanctifying grace which is the life of the soul, just as the soul itself is the life of the body.
A: (1) Mortal sin deprives the soul of grace and of the friendship of God; (2) It makes it lose Heaven; (3) It deprives it of merits already acquired, and renders it incapable of acquiring new merits; (4) It makes it the slave of the devil; (5) It makes it deserve hell as well as the chastisements of this life.
A: To constitute a mortal sin, besides grave matter there is also required full consciousness of the gravity of the matter, along with the deliberate will to commit the sin.
A: Venial sin is a lesser transgression of the divine Law, by which we slightly fail in some duty towards God, towards our neighbor, or towards ourselves.
A: It is called venial Because it is light compared with mortal sin; because it does not deprive us of divine grace; and because God more readily pardons us.
A: That would be a very great mistake, not only because venial sin is always an offense against God; but also because it does no little harm to the soul.
A: Venial sin: (1) Weakens and chills charity in us; (2) Disposes us to mortal sin; (3) Renders us deserving of great temporal punishments both in this world and in the next.